|Posted by Ehan Abbas on February 17, 2013 at 9:40 AM||comments (223)|
Source: CLICK HERE
By Dr. K. T. Chandy, Agricultural & Environmental Education, Government of India 2007
(Booklet No. 507, Forestry: FS- 4)
Poplar trees are among the world fastest growing industrial woods which can be raised as pure or mixed plantations as well as in association with agricultural crops. They are mostly multipurpose tree species and their wood is in much demand for paper and pulp and other uses. They are preferred by foresters and farmers in India for planting.
Poplar species occupy a unique and important position in the rural economy of India. They are known for their fast growth, easy vegetative propagation, capability to enrich surface soil by adding leaf litter and the ability to provide substantial production (10-30 m3/ha/yr) on a short rotation of 6 to 12 years. In Punjab, a production of 46.92 m3/ha/yr has been achieved through intensive management practices on farm lands as compared to 0.7 m3/ha/yr. estimated growth rate for forests in India. The tree crown intercept rains, acts as wind breaks and thus checks soil erosion and minimizes the effects of wind on associated crops. Poplar species in India are winter deciduous and remain leafless for 3-4 months, thereby favouring intercultivation of agricultural crops throughout the rotation. In India, poplar cultivation has specifically gained importance as an agroforestry species.
Poplar species in their natural range occur interspersed throughout the forests of temperate regions of northern hemisphere between the southern limit of around latitude 30 degree N and northern limit of latitude 45 degree north. Several species occur naturally in the land mass. There are 35 species of poplar currently recognised in the world. Important countries undertaking poplar plantations are France, Japan, Italy, Korea, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Australia, Romania, Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, USA, Canada, India, Pakistan, Turkey, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Atganishtan, New Zealand, Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria. Poplar is widely planted above 28 Degree N latitude in India in Jammu and Kaslunir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, North Bengal, and Arunachal Pradesh along roads, canals in agriculture fields, towns, parks, orchards and home gardens.
Poplar is a large tree reaching well over 25 m height and 100 -130 cms. in girth (at breast height) in a period of 10 -12 years. It is shallow rooted and the root system spreads widely. The tree develops a tall straight bole. The main branches from a fairly simple, wide and conical crown. Abundant foliage makes the crown quite dense. The tree is deciduous, the leafless period varies from 3 -4 months. Flowering is normally in the dry season.
Poplar species light demanding plants and are susceptible to drought. Though they grow well on sites with higher water table, but cannot withstand water logging. The growth is optimal under irrigated conditions. They prefer deep well drained, workable and nutrient rich soils. The pH should be between 5.5 to 7.0 They do not tolerate acidic soils. they are fire tenders and susceptible even to light fire.
They are as follows.
A. Indigenous poplar species
Poplar species are not new to India. There are six species (viz. P. ciliata, P. laurifolia, P. gamble; P. euphratica, P. alba and P. jagucmontiana, var glauca) indigenous to India mainly found along water courses in the higher hills in valleys and also in hillsides exposed due to landslides etc, Out of six species only four species viz, p, ciliata, P. gamblei, P. alba and P. euphratica are important for cultivation in the Himalayan zone and deserve attention for improvement. These species merit wider recognition, systematic survey, collection and evaluation of desirable geographical races and development of suitable clones.
B. Exotic poplar species
Considering the importance of exotic poplar clones for their fast growth and ability to provide substantial production of wood on a short rotation, a major programme of introduction to select suitable species and their hybrids/clones/cultivates for varying agroclimatic conditions in India was initiated at the Forest Research Institute (FRI), Dehradun as early as 1950. This started when hybrid clones of populus serotlina, P. 'gelrica', "P.robitsta were imported, tested, screened, and tried between 1700 to 2700 m elevation in the hills of Uttar Pradesh.
Owing to their specific photo-periodic requirements exotic poplars have only a limited distribution in India. They have performed exceedingly well and have shown good growth in the areas lying north of approximately 28 degree north latitude in the States of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. In Maharashtra 'D - 121 " 'G-3' and 'C-48 clone of Populus deltoides have shown promising results.
C. Promising species/clones
In India, large number of exotic species/clones have been tested, screened and recommended for raising large scale commercial plantations above 28 degree north latitude. Several states have raised commercial plantations of exotic poplars. Suitable clones/species of populus adopted to the different regions/states are as follows.
Exotic poplars are largely planted in Nainital, Moradabad, Bareilly, Rampur, Badaun, Bijnaur, Bulandshahar, Dehradun, etc. The most promising species/clones are P.yunnanensis, P. robusta and P. ciliata in hills; P. deltoids, Australian selection of 'G-3', 'G-48', 'American selection of 'D-121', 'D- 66' 'D-61' 'D- 75' 'D-181' 'D-l00' S7C8 ST -67 and Lux '69/55' in plains and foothills.
Jammu & Kashmir
P.nigra var 'italica' shows excellent performance and has naturalised. The other species/clones showing best performance are P.xeuramericana 'I-488', P. 'eugenei', P. 'robusta', P.deltoides 'IC', P.laurifolia, P.ciliata, P.alba.
The species which are doing well tor lower hills are P. xeuramericana 1-488, 1-65, 1-15, P. rubrapoiret, and P.deltoides IC. For middle hills P.xeuramericana, 1-488, 1- 65, 1-214, 1-78, P. deltoides IC, P. reinbek, and P. eugenei are suitable. Upper hills P. xeuramaericana, P. Hei demij, P. yunnanensis, P. ciliata etc. are suitable.
In Punjab Populus is a preferred species planted in agroforestry and social forestry plantations. Clones of P. deltoides 'G-3', 'G-48', and 'D-121' have been successfully grown.
Poplars are mainly cultivated on agriculture fields along roads and canal sides in districts of Ambala, Yamunanagar, Kurukshetra and Karnal. Clones of P. deltoides 'G-3' have been extensively grown.
North Eastern States
P.ciliata, P. gamblei and P.jaquamontiana var. glauca occur naturally In Sikkim and P. gamblei, P. ciliata in Arunachal Pradesh while P. deltoides 'G-3' and IC have been succesfully planted in Arunachal Pradesh.
Some of the new clones introduced recently that have shown success in farming systems in North India are 'ST -67', 'S7C4', 'S7C8', clones of 'L' series developed at Haldwani (UP) from open pollinated seeds of 'G-48' and 'D-121' have also shown promise and may replace the existing clones in near future.
V. Soil and Climate
Populus sp. generally perform best on fertile loam or clayey loam soils, rich in organic matter. Saline and alkaline soils are not suitable. It prefers porous soil with adequate moisture. The areas in the Indian plains experience a hot climate with temperature reaching 40 degree C in the summers, frost in winter and a pronounced dry season before the onset of monsoon during June-July, which poplars withstand remarkably well.
VI. Growth Characteristics
Poplar is a large tree reaching well over 25 m. in height and 100 -130 cms. in girth at breast height (GBH) in a period of 10-12 years. It is shallow rooted and the root system spreads widely. The tree develops a tall and straight , bole. The main branches are simple and spread fairly wide, resulting in an a conical crown. Abundant foliage makes the crown quite dense. The tree is deciduous between November to March, the period varying from 3 -4 months. Flowering is normally during April- May.
The poplar trees are characterized by vegetative propagation, deciduous nature and frequent hybridisation between races of different types and of complementary sexes.
Because of rapid growth rate, easy propagation production of light wood for constructional timber and is a raw material for a number of industries. Being leafless during winter, they do not interfere with rabi crops and it. planted at wide spacings, permit interculture operations.
VII. Natural Regeneration
Populus spp. seeds abundantly but the natural regeneration through seeds is negligible except on landslips, freshy turned soils and along water courses. The seeds which fan and reach the ground shortly before the rainy season germinate a few days after the commencement of the rains. Populus also produce root suckers in abundance and the natural regeneration especially on poor sites or disturbed areas comes up mostly from suckers.
VIII. Plantation Technology
This include the following.
A. Nursery practices
Nursery techniques mentioned here are applicable to all popular species planted in India.
1. Nursery site
The nursery site should be located in areas which have loamy soils, rich in organic matter, have assured irrigation and proper drainage systems. Heavy clay or sandy soils are not suitable. pH of soil should not be below 5.0, soils with a pH over 5.5 is generally considered suitable. A good site and soil preparation is essential for vigorous growth of poplars. All weeds and grasses should be eliminated. Thorough ploughing, harrowing and scalping gives good results. After ploughing levelling should be done and flat nursery beds are prepared. Poplars are sensitive to zinc deficiency. Zinc sulphate (25 kg./ha) may be applied to the area at the time of ploughing and site preparation. Mixing of farmyard manure (2 kg. per cutting in nursery beds) gives best growth. However, use of urea, supelphosphate and muriate of potash according to soil requirement is necessary.
2. Seed collection and storage
The spikes ripened during June-July and the branches bearing spikes are cut and collected shortly before the seed is about to shed. The capsules are dried for two to three days. Cotton with seeds is collected and seeds are separated manually from the cotton. Seeds collected from the middle one third portion of the tree (P.ciliata) gives significantly higher germination as compared to seeds collected from lower and : upper portion. Poplar seeds remain viable for three weeks at room temperature. If seeds are kept in sealed bottles in refrigerator, viability is increased fo000r abou1 year.
Raising of plants by sowing seeds is generally practiced for tree improvement P. gamblei which is difficult to propagate by vegetative means is generally grown by sowing seeds in the nursery, Seeds may be sown in enamelled trays using sterilized river sand and soil as germination medium. The best medium being 2 parts sterilized soils and 1 part river sand. The trays along with the sterilized mediurn are soaked drenched in water and the seeds are sown. Trays are covered polythene sheets for 2-3 days to facilitate germination.
4. Pricking out
This is done when seedlings attain a bright of 5~6 cms (in about a month's time after sowing). Seedlings are pricked out in polypots, kept under shade and watered twice daily. Growth of seedlings is very rapid.
5, Preparation of cuttings
Poplars are generally raised by vegetative means using cuttings. Cuttings are derived tram one year old shoots from lower two-third portion or from nursery grown one year old plants, during the dormant season. Cuttings from the shoots are prepared using sharp cutters like secateures or 'gandasa'. The optimum diameter of cutting (22 cm long) varies from 1 - I3 cm. Both ends of the cuttings should be sealed by wax as protection against moisture loss. The cuttings should be submerged in fresh water immediately after preparation and kept for 28 hours. Prior to planting, cuttings should be drenched with Aldrin (30 EC thoroughly mixed in 100 litres water) emulsion. There after the cuttings are also treated with Emisan an organomercurial fungicide (250 gm Emisan in 1000 lit. of water).
6. Planting of cuttings
The cuttings are inserted vertically in well prepared nursery beds. The usual spacing between cuttings is generally kept at 50 cms or 60 cms and between rows 60 -80 centimetres. The entire length of cutting should be inserted into the soil keeping one bud above ground level. The soil around each cutting should be compacted gently but firmly without injuring the bark. The nursery raised plants called entire transplants (ETPs) attain a height of about 3-4 m in one growing season. These are utilized for planting in the field.
Irrigation should be provided immediately after planting the cuttings. Thereafter irrigation can be extended to 15 days interval depending upon the type of soil and the requirement till onsets of monsoon. Proper and effective drainage of excess water is essential during rainy season to prevent rotting and collar rot. After the rainy season is over, 1 -2 irrigations per month will be sufficient.
Poplars are very susceptible to competition by weeds therefore, regular weeding out schedule is obligatory to reduce competition and improve the moisture nutrient uptake by plants.
B. Planting practices
Several practices like site preparation, planting systems etc. are described here.
1. Site selection and its preparation
Following points should be kept in mind while selecting sites suitable for poplar plantations.
a. Site should be well drained, low lying areas subject to water logging could be avoided.
b. Assured irrigation facility should be available.
c. Fertile loam or silt loam rich in organic matter should be preferred
d. Heavy clay soils, very sandy soils, saline and alkaline soils should be avoided.
e. Areas with high water table are best sites for poplar plantation.
f. Soil pH over 5.5 ~s essential and below 5.5 is marginal and should be avoided.
g. Areas known to be infested with termites should be avoided.
h. As poplar species are strong light demanders areas affected by the shade of the existing trees should be avoided.
January and February are the best months for transplanting poplar from nursery to the field. A good site and soil preparation is essential for vigorous growth. The site preparation operations include ploughing the land and disc harrowing. After preparation of land, well aligned, irrigation channels 5 m apart from centre to centre are prepared. Such channels will facilitate optimum and timely irrigation of poplar.
2. Block planting
Poplar when grown as a pure crop will be generally raised in compact blocks at a spacing of 4 m x 3 m and in combination with agricultural crops spaced at 5 m x 4 m or 5 mx5m.
3. Row and line planting
Row planting is carried out along roads, canal banks and in fields. In case of roads, the first row plants may be located at a distance of 9 m from the centre of the road along national highways, elsewhere the distance is 7.5 metres. In case of row planting in agricultural fields, the rows are spaced 10 m apart and the distance between two lines and plants is kept at 4 m x 4 metres.
4. Mixed plantation
Poplar do not withstand underplanting if combined with other tree spp. as being susceptible to crown and root competition. However, in the hills poplar may be combined with Alnus and other tree species. In Himachal Pradesh, P. ciliata is used as nurse crop to cover young fir plants.
5. Digging of pits
Digging of pits along pre-planned irrigation channels at prescribed spacing should be done after proper alignment. The depth of the pits should be kept one meter from the ground. Pits are made with specially designed augers or tractor driven augers and should have a diameter of 15 centimetres.
6. Planting stock
Poplar trees are planted in the field by cuttings, sets, entire transplants, polypot plants and stumps. From the trials made during the last 20 years, one year old nursery plants called entire transplants (ETPs) 3 -4 m in height were ad- judged best for planting in the field. All side branches on the ETPs are removed and the thick lateral roots which may interfere in placing the ETPs in the pit are pruned to within 10 cm. of the main stem.
7. Handling of ETPs
The ETPs immediately after digging are placed in storage pits filled with fresh water for 48 hrs. Special care is required during handling and transportation over long distances to prevent breakages or damage to the stock. Prior to planting the ETPs a length up to one metre from the roots is stacked in Aldrin emulsion (250 ml Aldrex x 30 EC in 100 litres water) for 10 minutes as a protction against termite attack. Thereafter, the ETPs are placed in Emisan solution (250 gm Emisan in 100 lit. water) for 20 min. to prevent fungal infections.
8. Transplanting into pits
The top soil removed from the pits should be mixed with two kg. farmyard manure, 50 gm. single super phosphate, 25 gm of muriate of potash and 15 gm. 5% aldrex dust. The ETPs are planted in 1 m. deep auger holes. The holes must be refilled completely with the above said planting mixture and the soil well packed.
C. Cultural operations
Sprouting starts by end of February and is completed by end of April. Precautions should therefore be taken to ensure that wet or very moist soil is not heaped around the stem of plants as it may encourage colar rot damage. Heaping of earth to about 50 cm height at the base of each plant is necessary during raising seasons to provide stability to the plants.
Poplar trees are highly demanding in respect of water for optimum growth. Two irrigations per month are sufficient till the, end of December. In the second year, irrigation at 15 -20 days interval during summer will be sufficient. From third year onwards two irrigations per month during summer and once a month during October to December will be helpful in accelerating growth.
2. Fertilizer application
Application of nitrogenous fertilizers as top dressing in split doses as per requirement of soil are applied during active growth period from April to September. Fertilizers should be applied after irrigation. When poplar trees are combined with agricultural crops, fertilizers are not applied separately only for poplar trees.
Poplar trees are intolerant to all forms of weed competition. A weed free patch of ground around the poplars should be maintained, particularly when grown along with agricultural crops.
D. Care after planting
After planting several operations are to be carried out for getting proper growth and development.
1. De budding
During the first year of growth, debudding operations should be carried out in the lower most one-third part of the stem during June-July. Removal of double leaders should also be carried out simultaneously. Leader training should be repeated during winter after completion of two season growth.
Pruning of branching is essential to produce large and clean bole with maximum volume. Pruning operation should start when the plants are 2-3 years old. Pruning should be restricted to a maximum of lower one third of the tree. During subsequent years, pruning may be carried out up to a minimum of one third and maximum half of the total height of the tree. Excessive pruning is injurious as it encourages development of vigorous epicormic branches and retards diameter growth pruning separations may be carried out when trees becomes leafless.
It is done to favour the growth. In pure plantations, thinning should be done as soon as the crowns begins to close. Since poplars are grown at a wider spacing, thinning is not regarded as economically viable, as little demand exists for small size material obtained from thinnings. Therefore it is important to choose the correct spacing for planting poplar transplants.
IX. Pests and Diseases
Most of the pests recorded on poplars are indigenous. They in course of time began feeding on poplar and some attain epidemic proportions in plantations. Important insects pests and their management are given here.
A. Nursery pests
Poplars in nurseries do not have much insect problems as intensively cultured. However, cuttings may some times be damaged by termites and chaffer grubs. Termites feed on buried portion of cuttings, making small holes and feeding channels thus killing them.
For the management of termite and chaffer grubs in poplar nurseries, soil insecticides such as chlorpyriphos (75 mI. m 50 lit. of water) may be applied for treatment of infested cuttings or thimet 10 G at the rate of 200 gm per bed (10 x 1m).
B. Insect pests of plantations.
These are as follows.
There are many defoliators carrying damage to poplars. Principal among them and common in poplar plantation of sub tropical areas, in the Tarai and plains are Clostera fulgurita, C.cupreata and Phalauta, Lymantria obfuscate, Malacosoma indica are pests common to the hilly areas.
These defoliators have very effective natural enemy complexes which include parasites, predators, pathogens and viruses. These are being used for biological control of poplar pests. Epidemic defoliation may be suppressed by spray of chemical insecticides. To control the pest incidences on small scale, spray of folithion 50 EC or carbaryl 50 WP (0.2% in water) is recommended, while for epidemics aerial spraying of carbaryl 85 S @ 1 kg. per ha is recommended. Some spraying should be done either by rotary wii1g or fixed wing air crafts.
2. Stem and shoot borers
These are highly injurious insects and may cause die back or kill the plant. The shoot borers in nurseries and young plantations can be controlled by the application of systemic insecticide, i.e. foliar spray of dimethoate 30 e (0.02%) or soil application of thimet 10 g @ 30 -50 gms. per plant. Injecting
5 ml of saturated solution of paradichlorobenzene in kerosene oil into the lowermost holes, after closing the holes on the upper portion of stem is very effective. A. cineria and A. sarto.
3. Sap suckers
These insects also cause considerable damage in plains as well as in hilly areas but the attack is more pronounced in hilly areas. All the sap suckers feed on the green parts of the plants.
For the management of sap suckers bio control agents such as syrphid larvae, coccinalid beetyles (hill regions only) may be utilized. For chemical control spray of monocrotophos 36 e @ or dimethoate 30 e (0.02%) in water is recommended.
Poplar trees are prone to a number of fungal diseases. An account of important pathogens attacking root, stem, and foliage of poplars both in nurseries and plantations is as follows.
1. Nursery diseases
Some of the diseases of nursery are mentioned here.
a. Stem rot
The cuttings used as planting material are often attacked by two soil fungi viz. Botryodiplodia palma ruin and macrophoma sp which leads to death of sprouted cuttings due to decay. Dip treatment of cuttings in 0.5% organic mercurial solution Emisan before planting desirable.
b. Root rot
While root rot caused by Rosellinia necatrix is another serious disease which causes wilt which outright kills poplars in high altitudes nurseries in Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Drenching soil with 0.1% bavistin (benzimidazole) around the plant helps in checking this rot disease in nurseries.
c. Leaf spot and blight
In high altitude nurseries in Western Himalayas, CIadosporium humile is a virile fungus attacking indigenous poplars causing premature defoliation. Two to three applications of 0.35% dithane M 45 (mancozeb) before onset of monsoon as foliar spray minimizes the severity of the disease to a great extent.
The foliar diseases can be controlled by maintaining good hygiene in nurseries and applying prophylactic spray of fungicides during monsoons. The leaf plight fungus has also been found to cause serious damage.
2. Plantation diseases
Some of the diseases that are commonly seen in the plantation of poplar are given here.
a. Foliage and twig blight
The disease causes complete defoliation and is attributed to Pollaccia elegans which attacks young plants of naturalized and indigenous poplars and is active in Jammu and Kashmir state. Young infected shoots turn black and appear crooked. The control measures most effective are systematic pruning of diseased branches and choosing resistant species for planting.
b. Stem diseases
The introduced poplars suffers from pink disease caused by Corticium camanicolar. Complete girdling of stem and branches results in top dying. Use of copper based fungicides minimizes disease incidence.
c. Root diseases
In plantations, two important root decay fungi, Ganoderma lucidum and Phallinus noxious cause large scale mortality of trees in groups. Strategies drawn for control of Ganoderma root rot include removal of infected woody debris from the site.
Bark bursts and sun scald area among the physiogenic diseases and water and soil conditions also have a great influences on health of poplar plantations.
X. Growth and Yield
Yield estimates on poplar stands indicate a mean annual increment of 20 -25 m3/ha and in field bund plantations an annual increment of 1.5 to 3.5 m3/ha. However, in some cases productivity has been much more ranging from 25 to 28 m3f ha. Spacing has a marked influence on volume production. Maximum mean annual increment estimated at an age of 12 years at different spacings is given in Table 1.
Table 1: Maximum Area Index (m3/ha) under different spacing and site qualities
Site quality MAI (m3 / ha) under different spacing (metre)
3.5 x 3.5 4.5 x 4.5 5.5 x 5.5
I 38.340 25.231 18.093
II 25.231 16.840 12.220
III 14.355 9.822 7.269
Pruning has a beneficial effect on the growth of poplars and improves the timber quality. Spacing of 5m x 5 m if adopted, facilitates agriculture in between poplars. For minimum rotation spacing of 2 m x 2 m and short rotation 4 m x 4 m is advocated.
For last growing clones, a rotation of 12 years provided an MAl of 10 cu m/ha at 5 m x 5 m spacing. Estimates of yield at shorter rotations at a spacing of 3 m x 3 m are given here (Table 2).
Table 2: Estimates of yield at shorter rotations at 3x3 mts. Spacing
class Max MAI / ha /Cum Rotation age
I 49.681 8
II 30.567 8
III 15.593 10
In fact, poplars are among the world's fastest growing industrial woods which can be raised as pure or mixed plantations as well as in association with agricultural crops.
XI. Poplar in Agroforestry
Poplars are raised on farmlands in rows, along boundaries, paths and in blocks. In the tarai belt these are intercropped at 5 m x 5 m cultivation which allows tractor operations. Potato, berseem, sugar cane, paddy, wheat, maize, gram, lam, bean, pea, soybean, lentil, jowar, oats and lobia are grown. During the rabi an added advantage accrues since the poplars are leafless and allow sunlight.
Poplar because of its deciduous character, allow winter cropping only with marginal effect on agri yields. The income from poplar plantations raised under agro-forestry are estimated to provide a gross return of Rs.4.11 Iakh (Rs.19,500/ ha from agriculture and Rs.3,91,500 from trees) or a surplus of Rs.2.78 lakh per ha in eight years with an allowance for interest on investment @ 15 per cent. The returns being substantially higher than raising pure agriculture crops. Poplar under agroforestry, thus constitute a "saving bank" which the farmers can convert into liquid assets any time after it is ready for harvesting. About 26, 446 hectare area has so far been covered under poplar plantations in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The main intercrops are several fodder crops and medicinal herbs besides other vegetables and some cereal crops. Growing of poplars in orchards has gained popularity in recent years.
Growth and yield of wheat crop as influenced by planting of G-3 clone in single row of 21 trees along southern side of field bunds arranged in a east-west direction was investigated. Results indicate that overall wheat grain yield does not show significant difference compared to crops grown in the open. Unexpectedly, some improvement in crop yield (10.63 kg.) was found in a zone within 15 m from the bund tree line (Table 3).
Table 3: Influence of poplar tree line on the growth and yield of wheat crop
Sl.No. Distance tree line Shoot N0/m2 Height of whear plant (cm) Average ear length (cm) Grain No/Kg Wheat grain yield (qu/ha)
1 Below 4 m 231 78.14 8.76 26241 24.53
2 4 m to 8 m 200 75.63 9.03 26658 10.91
3 8m to 15 m 247 82.53 9.42 26623 20.91
4 Above 15 m 237 75.10 9.31 27201 19.93
The total income from 21 trees worked out to be Rs.8,700.00 at 6 years age at Rs.l,450.00 per year.
Poplar is a medium density hardwood with an average specific gravity of 0.441 (on oven dry wt/green volume basis). By virtue of its fast growth, it offers, great potential for meeting the requirements of wood based industries in the country in the near future. Large scale planting of this tree has been introduced in the plains of Punjab, Haryana and North Western Uttar Pradesh under agro forestry and farm forestry schemes. Logs of this species are now becoming available for possible timber use. It has therefore, assumed importance for being investigated for its various physical and mechanical properties and various processing techniques with a view of its proper utilization m making different wood products.
A. Wood poles
Suitability of P. deltoids for use as line supports (for overhead power and telecommunication lines) has been tested. The test results indicated that P. deltoides meets the minimum strength requirements.
Both P. deltoides and P. ciliata are suitable for making packing cases and crates.
C. Miscellaneous uses
P. del to ides and P. ciliata are considered suitable for the manufacture of artificial limbs, matches and sports goods. Although P. deltoide, does not fully meet the requirements of timber for utilization as structural timber, it may however be used for structural uses such as false ceilings, partitions and almirah, shelf planks, where load bearing capacity is not essentially required.
Peeling characteristics of P. deltoide and P. ciliata have been studied for obtaining smooth, uniform, tight and strong veneers.
Suitability of Populus sp. were studied for their use in various grades of plywood and blackboards.
Suitability of young Populus deltoides (1 -2 year old) was evaluated for making fibre hard boards, cement bonded hoards and compressed wood shuttle blocks.
Poplars hold an excellent promise as source of fibre for various grades of paper, fine paper, packing papers and news-print. High yield pulps (71 -81 % yield) having excellent strength properties for newsprint could be made from poplars.
G. Medicinal uses
Bark of P. ciliata is used as a tonic, stimulant, and blood purifier. P. euphratica bark is reported to be a vermifuge. P. nigra bark extract is considered depurative and is used against colds. The tanin content of the bark is 5 -9.7 per cent. The twigs of P. euphratica are chewed and used for cleaning teeth. Leaf buds of P. nigra can be used for the preparation of an ointment, which is reported to be effective in the cure of hoemonhoids.
The leaves of some poplar species are used as fodder. Leaves of P. ciliata and P. nigra are used as fodder for goats and those of P. euphratica and P. laurifolia afford a good fodder for sheep, goats, camels and cattle.
I. Fuel wood
The lops and tops rejects and waste material derived through intermittent prunings are used as fuel wood.
J. Environmental conservation
P.ciliata grows well in burnt areas and acts as a colonizer on exposed soils, eroded hill slopes and landslips. P. euphratica is an ideal tree which grows well in inhospitable locality (cold desert areas) in Laddakh. P. nigra largely used for roadside planting lends decor to the famous avenues of the Kashmir valley. To check river bank erosion, P. deltoides has been grown on river banks in Saharanpur district. A single line of plants along the field boundaries, roads, around orchards and in parks improves the landscape and in addition serves as a windbreak, benefiting the fruit and agricultural crops. It helps in maintaining equitable carbon-di-oxide balance in agricultural system which induces photo synthesis.
Rotation mainly depends on the objective of raising poplar plantations. For pulpwood, a rotation of 4 -6 years will best whereas for match splints 6 -8 years rotation is considered to be optimum. Where the objective is to produce large sized timber especially for plywood, a rotation of 15 -20 years is preferred.
Therefore, it is advised that the Poplar tree farming should be practised at a larger scale all over the UP , (including Gowali Sadaat).
|Posted by Ehan Abbas on February 13, 2013 at 1:05 AM||comments (2)|
Wednesday, 13th February 2013: With the Grace of Allah (S.W.T.) , the Construction of the internal RCC roads has started in Gowali Sadaat. Thanks to the endless efforts of Mr Syed Rizwan Haider Zaidi, (incharge of the road construction), the work will be completed within 3 months. Mr Rizwan told that "The best raw metrial" will be used to develop the roads. The total road length will be approximately 1 km.
|Posted by Ehan Abbas on September 3, 2011 at 11:45 AM||comments (0)|
Salaam Ul Alekum , we have added a new channel to this website exclusively for the Dua and Ziyaaraat. As of now only a few dua are available but we will add more videos to this section as soon as possible.
The new DUA channel can be accessed directly by visiting the following link:
|Posted by Ehan Abbas on September 3, 2011 at 11:40 AM||comments (0)|
Wednesday, August 31 2011: Eid Ul Fitr was celebrated with great passion all over Gowali Sadaat on Wednesday. The Eid Prayers were help in the Masjid at 10:00 AM. Outstation citizens came to Gowali specially to celebrate EID with all their Kinsmen.
|Posted by Ehan Abbas on March 2, 2011 at 4:28 AM||comments (0)|
March 1st 2011: Saba has created a new Facebook web page , where you can check the latest news, updates , pictures and Videos related to Gowali and its community. The web page can be accessed by going on to the following link:
|Posted by Ehan Abbas on January 19, 2011 at 7:54 AM||comments (0)|
Tuesday, 18th January 2011: The 13th Safar Majalis and Taboot of Bibi Sakina (s.a) was observed sucessfully at the Azakhana E Shabbir which was attended by a mass gathering of 2000 pilgrims from all over the counrty. The Majalis was addresses by Mohtarma Janaab Tahseen Rizvi (New Delhi). 8 Nohas were also recited and the majalis lasted for over 3 hours.
|Posted by Ehan Abbas on December 24, 2010 at 4:20 AM||comments (0)|
The Ashura and the Moharram Ashra was peacefully observed throughout Gowali from 8th till 19th December 2010. All Majalis and Juloos processions went on peacefully. A crowd of 5000 + observed the Ashura on 17th December 2010 throughout Gowali.
|Posted by Ehan Abbas on November 11, 2010 at 11:29 AM||comments (0)|
|Posted by Ehan Abbas on October 30, 2010 at 7:59 AM||comments (1)|
October 30th 2010, Noorpur: Mohd. Islam wins the 2010 Panchayat elections by 100+ votes to become Panch beating Ameerul Husain in Village Panchayat elections. Mohd. Islam was bagged by majority of the shia electrorates (excluding some family members of the Haveli Khandaan) , specially supported by Mr. Shahid Husain Zaidi, who indeed has turned out to be a king maker elections after elections. Mohd. Islam thanked all members of the electrorate community specially the Family members of the Rakkhiwala Khandaan after winning the contest easily. He added that his main focus will be the overall development of the village. He also said that Mr. Shahid Husain is his Godfather and he will spend his life as a panch in guidance of the Rakkhiwala Khandaan.
|Posted by Ehan Abbas on October 25, 2010 at 2:39 AM||comments (0)|
The panchayat elections for 2010-2015 were held peacefully throughout Gowali and results will be declared on 28th October 2010..